Physics of the Inner Heliosphere II

Inhaltsverzeichnis

6. Magnetic Clouds.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definition and Properties of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.3 Origin and Composition of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.4 Model of the Local Structure of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.5 Large-Scale Structure of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.6 Motion and Stability of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.7 Nonthermal Particles and Magnetic Clouds.- 6.8 Effects of Magnetic Clouds on Geomagnetic Activity.- 6.9 Effects of Magnetic Clouds on Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 6.10 Magnetic Clouds and Compound Streams.- 6.11 Questions Concerning Magnetic Clouds.- References.- 7. Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Generation of Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.2.1 Steepening of Slow-Mode Waves.- 7.2.2 Magnetic Field Line Merging.- 7.2.3 Interaction of Interplanetary Discontinuities.- 7.2.4 Summary.- 7.3 Solar Wind Constraints on the Development and Evolution of Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.3.1 Constraints on the Development.- 7.3.2 Constraints on the Evolution and Propagation.- 7.3.3 Summary.- 7.4 Constraints on the Unique Identification of Interplanetary Slow Shocks from Space Observations.- 7.4.1 The Classical Way.- 7.4.2 Additional Conditions.- 7.4.3 Implications of Checking Against Tangential Discontinuities.- 7.4.4 Examples.- 7.4.5 Summary.- 7.5 Summary.- References.- 8. Kinetic Physics of the Solar Wind Plasma.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 General Remarks.- 8.1.2 The Importance of Kinetic Physics.- 8.1.3 Outline of the Article and Previous Reviews.- 8.2 Particle Velocity Distributions.- 8.2.1 Introduction.- 8.2.2 Ion Velocity Distributions.- 8.2.3 Electron Velocity Distributions.- 8.3 Coulomb Collisions and Nonclassical Transport.- 8.3.1 General Remarks.- 8.3.2 Observations on the Role of Coulomb Collisions.- 8.3.3 Kinetic Modeling of the Effects of Coulomb Collisions.- 8.3.4 Towards a Nonclassical Collisional Transport Theory.- 8.4 Wave-Particle Interactions and Anomalous Transport.- 8.4.1 General Remarks.- 8.4.2 Electrostatic Waves and Plasma Instability.- 8.4.3 Electromagnetic Waves and Plasma Instability.- 8.4.4 Electron Heat Flux Regulation.- 8.4.5 Regulation of the Ion Temperature Anisotropy and Heat Flux.- 8.4.6 Regulation of the Electromagnetic Ion-Beam Instability.- 8.4.7 Some Nonlinear Aspects of Wave-Particle Interactions.- 8.5 Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- 8.5.1 Introduction.- 8.5.2 Differences Between Ion Parameters.- 8.5.3 The Equation of State and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- 8.5.4 Radial Gradients of Heat Fluxes.- 8.5.5 Radial Gradients of Ion and Electron Temperatures.- 8.6 Dissipation of MHD Turbulence and Particle Heating.- 8.6.1 Kinetic Damping of MHD Waves.- 8.6.2 Damping of Alfvénic Turbulence by a Nonlinear Cascade.- 8.6.3 Particle Heating by Wave Dissipation.- 8.7 Energy, Momentum, and Mass Input into the Solar Wind.- 8.7.1 Coronal Boundary Conditions.- 8.7.2 A Brief Account of Coronal Structures and Associated Interplanetary Phenomena.- 8.7.3 Interplanetary and Coronal Energy Fluxes and Solar Wind Constants of Motion.- 8.7.4 Physics of the Thermal Potential.- 8.8 Conclusions.- References.- 9. Waves and Instabilities.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Electrostatic Waves.- 9.2.1 Electron Plasma Oscillations.- 9.2.2 Ion Acoustic Waves.- 9.3 Electromagnetic Waves.- 9.3.1 MHD Waves and Ion Cyclotron Waves.- 9.3.2 Whistler-Mode Waves.- 9.4 Conclusion.- References.- 10. MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.1.1 General and Historical Remarks.- 10.1.2 The Importance of MHD Turbulence for Space Plasma Physics.- 10.1.3 Outline and Scope of the Article and Its Relation to Previous Reviews.- 10.2 Structures and Fluctuations in the Inner Heliosphere.- 10.2.1 Large-Scale Solar Wind Structures.- 10.2.2 Mesoscale Structures and Fluctuations.- 10.3 MHD Theory and Turbulence Diagnostics.- 10.3.1 Basic Equations.- 10.3.2 Alfvén Waves and Magnetosonic Waves.- 10.3.3 Analysis of Random MHD Fields.- 10.3.4 Integral Invariants of Incompressible MHD.- 10.3.5 Turbulence Spectra.- 10.3.6 Analysis Techniques in the Time Domain.- 10.4 Nature and Morphology of MHD Fluctuations.- 10.4.1 Power Spectra in Terms of Elsässer Variables.- 10.4.2 Stream-Structure Dependence of Alfvénic Fluctuations.- 10.4.3 Compressive Fluctuations.- 10.5 Origin and Evolution of Solar Wind MHD Turbulence.- 10.5.1 Sources of Interplanetary Fluctuations.- 10.5.2 Radial Evolution of Alfvénicity.- 10.5.3 Radial Evolution of Spectra.- 10.5.4 Self-similarity and Origin of Turbulence.- 10.5.5 Evidence for the Dissipation of Turbulence.- 10.6 Theoretical Concepts of Turbulence Generation and Evolution.- 10.6.1 Numerical Simulations as a Guide to Interpreting Observations.- 10.6.2 Models of Turbulence for Inhomogeneous Media.- 10.6.3 Nonlinearities and Cascading.- 10.6.4 Compressibility and Pseudosound.- 10.7 Summary and Conclusions.- 10.7.1 Left-Out Topics.- 10.7.2 Observational Summary.- 10.7.3 Conclusions and Recommendations.- References.- 11. Energetic Particles in the Inner Solar System.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Radiation.- 11.2.1 Model Concepts.- 11.2.2 Observations.- 11.3 Interplanetary Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles.- 11.3.1 Transport Models.- 11.3.2 Magnetic Field Properties and Pitch-Angle Scattering.- 11.3.3 Observations of the Mean Free Path.- 11.3.4 The ?-dependence of the Scattering Coefficient.- 11.3.5 Summary, Open Questions, and Suggestions for Further Studies.- 11.4 Coronal Propagation.- 11.4.1 Brief Overview of Early Observations.- 11.4.2 Models.- 11.4.3 Recent Observations.- 11.4.4 Discussion.- 11.5 Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares.- 11.5.1 Acceleration Mechanisms.- 11.5.2 Selected Observations.- 11.5.3 3He-Rich Solar Particle Events.- 11.6 Particle Acceleration in Corotating Interplanetary Regions.- 11.6.1 Features of Corotating Events and Their Relation to the Solar Wind.- 11.6.2 Corotating Events Throughout the Solar System and Solar Cycle Dependence.- 11.6.3 Models of Corotating Event Generation and Transport.- References.
Band 21
Physics and Chemistry in Space Band 21

Physics of the Inner Heliosphere II

Particles, Waves and Turbulence

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Beschreibung


Physics of the Inner Heliosphere gives for the first time a comprehensive and complete summary of our knowledge of the inner solar system. Using data collected over more than 11 years by the HELIOS twin solar probes, one of the most successful ventures in unmanned space exploration, the authors have compiled six extensive reviews of the physical processes of the inner heliosphere and their relation to the solar atmosphere. Researchers and advanced students in space and plasma physics, astronomy, and solar physics will be surprised to see just how closely the heliosphere is tied to, and how sensitively it depends on, the sun. Volume 2 deals with particles, waves, and turbulence, with chapters on: - magnetic clouds - interplanetary clouds - the solar wind plasma and MHD turbulence - waves and instabilities - energetic particles in the inner solar system

The second volume completes this modern presentation of what we know about the inner part of the solar system. Almost all of this knowledge derives from the HELIOS mission, in which the authors of this book were deeply involved.

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

19.01.2012

Herausgeber

Rainer Schwenn + weitere

Verlag

Springer Berlin

Seitenzahl

352

Beschreibung

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

19.01.2012

Herausgeber

Verlag

Springer Berlin

Seitenzahl

352

Maße (L/B/H)

23,5/15,5/1,9 cm

Gewicht

557 g

Auflage

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991

Sprache

Englisch

ISBN

978-3-642-75366-4

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  • Physics of the Inner Heliosphere II
  • 6. Magnetic Clouds.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definition and Properties of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.3 Origin and Composition of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.4 Model of the Local Structure of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.5 Large-Scale Structure of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.6 Motion and Stability of Magnetic Clouds.- 6.7 Nonthermal Particles and Magnetic Clouds.- 6.8 Effects of Magnetic Clouds on Geomagnetic Activity.- 6.9 Effects of Magnetic Clouds on Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 6.10 Magnetic Clouds and Compound Streams.- 6.11 Questions Concerning Magnetic Clouds.- References.- 7. Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Generation of Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.2.1 Steepening of Slow-Mode Waves.- 7.2.2 Magnetic Field Line Merging.- 7.2.3 Interaction of Interplanetary Discontinuities.- 7.2.4 Summary.- 7.3 Solar Wind Constraints on the Development and Evolution of Interplanetary Slow Shocks.- 7.3.1 Constraints on the Development.- 7.3.2 Constraints on the Evolution and Propagation.- 7.3.3 Summary.- 7.4 Constraints on the Unique Identification of Interplanetary Slow Shocks from Space Observations.- 7.4.1 The Classical Way.- 7.4.2 Additional Conditions.- 7.4.3 Implications of Checking Against Tangential Discontinuities.- 7.4.4 Examples.- 7.4.5 Summary.- 7.5 Summary.- References.- 8. Kinetic Physics of the Solar Wind Plasma.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 General Remarks.- 8.1.2 The Importance of Kinetic Physics.- 8.1.3 Outline of the Article and Previous Reviews.- 8.2 Particle Velocity Distributions.- 8.2.1 Introduction.- 8.2.2 Ion Velocity Distributions.- 8.2.3 Electron Velocity Distributions.- 8.3 Coulomb Collisions and Nonclassical Transport.- 8.3.1 General Remarks.- 8.3.2 Observations on the Role of Coulomb Collisions.- 8.3.3 Kinetic Modeling of the Effects of Coulomb Collisions.- 8.3.4 Towards a Nonclassical Collisional Transport Theory.- 8.4 Wave-Particle Interactions and Anomalous Transport.- 8.4.1 General Remarks.- 8.4.2 Electrostatic Waves and Plasma Instability.- 8.4.3 Electromagnetic Waves and Plasma Instability.- 8.4.4 Electron Heat Flux Regulation.- 8.4.5 Regulation of the Ion Temperature Anisotropy and Heat Flux.- 8.4.6 Regulation of the Electromagnetic Ion-Beam Instability.- 8.4.7 Some Nonlinear Aspects of Wave-Particle Interactions.- 8.5 Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- 8.5.1 Introduction.- 8.5.2 Differences Between Ion Parameters.- 8.5.3 The Equation of State and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- 8.5.4 Radial Gradients of Heat Fluxes.- 8.5.5 Radial Gradients of Ion and Electron Temperatures.- 8.6 Dissipation of MHD Turbulence and Particle Heating.- 8.6.1 Kinetic Damping of MHD Waves.- 8.6.2 Damping of Alfvénic Turbulence by a Nonlinear Cascade.- 8.6.3 Particle Heating by Wave Dissipation.- 8.7 Energy, Momentum, and Mass Input into the Solar Wind.- 8.7.1 Coronal Boundary Conditions.- 8.7.2 A Brief Account of Coronal Structures and Associated Interplanetary Phenomena.- 8.7.3 Interplanetary and Coronal Energy Fluxes and Solar Wind Constants of Motion.- 8.7.4 Physics of the Thermal Potential.- 8.8 Conclusions.- References.- 9. Waves and Instabilities.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Electrostatic Waves.- 9.2.1 Electron Plasma Oscillations.- 9.2.2 Ion Acoustic Waves.- 9.3 Electromagnetic Waves.- 9.3.1 MHD Waves and Ion Cyclotron Waves.- 9.3.2 Whistler-Mode Waves.- 9.4 Conclusion.- References.- 10. MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.1.1 General and Historical Remarks.- 10.1.2 The Importance of MHD Turbulence for Space Plasma Physics.- 10.1.3 Outline and Scope of the Article and Its Relation to Previous Reviews.- 10.2 Structures and Fluctuations in the Inner Heliosphere.- 10.2.1 Large-Scale Solar Wind Structures.- 10.2.2 Mesoscale Structures and Fluctuations.- 10.3 MHD Theory and Turbulence Diagnostics.- 10.3.1 Basic Equations.- 10.3.2 Alfvén Waves and Magnetosonic Waves.- 10.3.3 Analysis of Random MHD Fields.- 10.3.4 Integral Invariants of Incompressible MHD.- 10.3.5 Turbulence Spectra.- 10.3.6 Analysis Techniques in the Time Domain.- 10.4 Nature and Morphology of MHD Fluctuations.- 10.4.1 Power Spectra in Terms of Elsässer Variables.- 10.4.2 Stream-Structure Dependence of Alfvénic Fluctuations.- 10.4.3 Compressive Fluctuations.- 10.5 Origin and Evolution of Solar Wind MHD Turbulence.- 10.5.1 Sources of Interplanetary Fluctuations.- 10.5.2 Radial Evolution of Alfvénicity.- 10.5.3 Radial Evolution of Spectra.- 10.5.4 Self-similarity and Origin of Turbulence.- 10.5.5 Evidence for the Dissipation of Turbulence.- 10.6 Theoretical Concepts of Turbulence Generation and Evolution.- 10.6.1 Numerical Simulations as a Guide to Interpreting Observations.- 10.6.2 Models of Turbulence for Inhomogeneous Media.- 10.6.3 Nonlinearities and Cascading.- 10.6.4 Compressibility and Pseudosound.- 10.7 Summary and Conclusions.- 10.7.1 Left-Out Topics.- 10.7.2 Observational Summary.- 10.7.3 Conclusions and Recommendations.- References.- 11. Energetic Particles in the Inner Solar System.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Radiation.- 11.2.1 Model Concepts.- 11.2.2 Observations.- 11.3 Interplanetary Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles.- 11.3.1 Transport Models.- 11.3.2 Magnetic Field Properties and Pitch-Angle Scattering.- 11.3.3 Observations of the Mean Free Path.- 11.3.4 The ?-dependence of the Scattering Coefficient.- 11.3.5 Summary, Open Questions, and Suggestions for Further Studies.- 11.4 Coronal Propagation.- 11.4.1 Brief Overview of Early Observations.- 11.4.2 Models.- 11.4.3 Recent Observations.- 11.4.4 Discussion.- 11.5 Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares.- 11.5.1 Acceleration Mechanisms.- 11.5.2 Selected Observations.- 11.5.3 3He-Rich Solar Particle Events.- 11.6 Particle Acceleration in Corotating Interplanetary Regions.- 11.6.1 Features of Corotating Events and Their Relation to the Solar Wind.- 11.6.2 Corotating Events Throughout the Solar System and Solar Cycle Dependence.- 11.6.3 Models of Corotating Event Generation and Transport.- References.