Each term, as many as half or more of all US college students who enroll in college level algebra courses fail to complete or earn a passing grade. Some of these learners are also online learners. In response to both concerns about retention and success, this book provides a study which investigates online performance in this important gateway course. Designed as a study of over five hundred learners in an online college algebra course over three semesters, it explores the inter-relationships among institutional and learner variables, and attrition, failure, and success. This two-phase,quantitative study investigated the relationship between learner characteristics, evidence of preparedness, and learner performances in ten- or fifteen week courses from a community college virtual consortium. Using student data, the analyses included both correlations and step-wise regressions to investigate the relationship of learner characteristics and preparation to final course performance.