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A Student's Advanced Grammar of English (SAGE)

Whatever kind of high-level language user you are – college or university student, serving language teacher, or advanced school learner – A Student’s Advanced Grammar of English (SAGE) offers you support, information, and further training.

SAGE is a reference work as well as a programmed refresher course with exercises on the accompanying website, and a structured teaching aid. It serves as a spot-check in specific cases of uncertainty. But it also answers broader queries and provides comprehensive insights into the major structural areas of English. Its concern is not simply grammar, but above all usage.

SAGE is easy to comprehend and non-specialist in method. All grammatical terminology, whether traditional or innovative, is explained in a simple and straightforward manner. On the other hand, SAGE takes account of current research in language studies. In catering especially for the user with a native German background, SAGE treats many areas of English from a contrastive point of view, highlighting those phenomena which cause typical problems in a German-based learning context.

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Dr. Peter Fenn lehrt an der PH Ludwigsburg.
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  • Foreword VII

    Chapter 1 Introduction – Elements of English 1

    001 On grammar 1

    002 The character of English 3

    002/1 Who speaks English?. 3

    002/2 Where English comes from. 3

    002/3 Language varieties. 5

    002/4 Regional variants of English and standard languages 8

    003 Some basic concepts in language study 14

    003/1 Some general fields of language 14

    003/2 Basic grammatical categories. 17

    003/3 Sentence functions 19

    003/4 Sentence types and sentence patterns 24

    Chapter 2 Nouns 27

    2.1 Basic features: introduction 27

    004 Main grammatical features 27

    004/1 Nouns and noun phrases 27

    004/2 Syntactic roles of noun phrases 28

    004/3 Morphological invariance 29

    004/4 Number: singular and plural 29

    004/5 Countability 30

    004/6 The genitive. 31

    005 Main semantic features 32

    005/1 Common and proper nouns 32

    005/2 Common nouns: concrete or abstract 33

    005/3 Common nouns: individual, mass, collective, and pair nouns 33

    2.2 From singular to plural 34

    006 Regular plural formation 34

    006/1 Regular changes in spelling and pronunciation 34

    006/2 Special cases 34

    007 Irregular plural formation 35

    007/1 Vowel change 35

    007/2 Plurals in -en/-ence. 36

    007/3 Singular-plurals. 36

    007/4 Plural-singulars 37

    007/5 Greek and Latin plurals. 37

    007/6 Modern loan-word plurals 38

    008 Number, countability and meaning: details of use 39

    008/1 Individual nouns 39

    008/2 Mass nouns 39

    008/3 Collective nouns 41

    008/4 Pair nouns 43

    008/5 Quantifying non-count nouns 43

    008/6 Mass, collective and pair nouns with different German equivalents 45

    008/7 Summary: common nouns with different meanings in singular and plural 45

    2.3 The genitive 46

    009 The s-genitive: form and syntax 46

    009/1 Spelling 46

    009/2 Pronunciation 47

    009/3 Syntax 47

    010 The of-genitive: form and syntax 49

    010/1 As a postmodifying prepositional phrase 49

    010/2 As part of a premodifying expression of quantity. 49

    010/3 The “double genitive” 49

    011 The genitive in general use 50

    011/1 Animate nouns: s-genitive 50

    011/2 Inanimate nouns: of-genitive 51

    012 Some specific uses of the genitive 52

    012/1 Quantifying expressions 52

    012/2 Constitutive meaning 53

    012/3 The pronoun s-genitive with localities 55

    012/4 Genitives with verb-related nouns 57

    012/5 Beyond the genitive: the collocational nature of “prepositional of” with

    verb-related nouns 58

    012/6 The compound noun in genitive meaning 58

    013 Summary: s-genitive and of-genitive in contrast 58

    013/1 The s-genitive in general use; exceptions 58

    013/2 The of-genitive in general use; exceptions 59

    2.4 Noun forms 59

    014 Common suffixes 60

    014/1 Describing a state, condition or characteristic. 60

    014/2 Describing an action or state, or the result of one 60

    014/3 Describing a person/thing carrying out an action, or affected by one 60

    014/4 Describing fields of study, belief, professional activity or behaviour. 61

    014/5 Suffixes with mixed reference 61

    015 Prefixes 62

    015/1 Opposites. 62

    015/2 Describing place, order, size and rank. 62

    015/3 Describing self and others 62

    015/4 Referring to number and quantity 62

    015/5 Meaning “badly/wrongly”. 62

    016 Compound nouns 63

    016/1 Two separate nouns 63

    016/2 The “hyphen” question. 63

    016/3 Two nouns as one 64

    016/4 Singular in the first element 64

    016/5 Other types of compound noun 64

    016/6 Pronunciation: stress. 66

    016/7 Plural forms. 68

    017 Compound nouns: summary and points of difficulty 68

    017/1 Type and spelling. 68

    017/2 Pronunciation: stress. 69

    018 Some other processes of noun formation 69

    018/1 Old forms into new 70

    018/2 Old words, new meanings. 71

    018/3 New words, new meanings. 71

    Chapter 3 Pronouns, Determiners and Quantifiers 73

    3.1 Pronouns 73

    019 Main grammatical features 73

    020 Pronoun types 74

    020/1 Personal pronouns 74

    020/2 Possessives. 77

    020/3 Reflexive pronouns: self and others 79

    020/4 Reflexive pronouns: further points of usage 79

    020/5 Pronoun table (summary). 81

    020/6 Reflexives, possessives and personal pronouns: summary of important

    points and common difficulties. 81

    020/7 Other pronoun types. 82

    3.2 Determiners 84

    021 Main grammatical and semantic features 84

    022 Determiner types 84

    022/1 The indefinite article 84

    022/2 The definite article 87

    022/3 The zero article 88

    022/4 The definite article with names. 95

    022/5 The definite article in other ‘borderline’ uses 98

    022/6 Demonstrative determiners. 101

    3.3 Quantifiers 108

    023 Main grammatical and semantic features 108

    024 Distributives 109

    024/1 all 109

    024/2 both. 114

    024/3 every 116

    024/4 each. 117

    024/5 either. 119

    024/6 Negative distributives: not + either/neither/nor 121

    024/7 Other negative distributives 125

    025 Indefinite quantifiers 131

    025/1 some 132

    025/2 any 133

    025/3 much/many/a lot of 138

    025/4 little/few/a little/a few/several 139

    025/5 more/most, less/least, fewer/fewest 140

    Chapter 4 Adjectives 141

    026 Basic features 141

    027 The syntax of adjectives 142

    027/1 Position and function 142

    027/2 The adjective phrase 142

    028 Adjective meaning and adjective grammar 143

    028/1 Common semantic categories 143

    028/2 Some special sub-types 144

    028/3 Adjective position: attributive only. 145

    028/4 Adjective position: predicative only 146

    028/5 Clause reduction 147

    028/6 Attributive postmodification 148

    028/7 Attributive premodification 149

    028/8 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 151

    028/9 Proper adjectives 151

    029 Adjective forms 151

    029/1 Affixes 152

    029/2 Other words in adjective functions 154

    029/3 Compound adjectives 157

    030 Aspects of usage 159

    030/1 Adjectives as nouns. 159

    030/2 Some special cases. 163

    030/3 Adjectival complements 164

    031 Comparison 166

    031/1 Types of comparison 166

    031/2 Forming the comparative and superlative 167

    031/3 Use of comparative and superlative 170

    031/4 Equative comparison. 171

    031/5 Deficit and surplus comparatives compared 171

    031/6 Comparative constructions and their syntax 173

    031/7 Superlatives. 179

    031/8 Non-adjective comparison 180

    031/9 Summary of different comparative types and structures 186

    Chapter 5 Adverbs 188

    032 Basic features 188

    033 Adverb meaning 189

    033/1 Semantic types 190

    033/2 The adverb phrase and its functions 193

    033/3 Adverb position: general 196

    033/4 Adverb position according to meaning 197

    033/5 Position of other adverbials. 205

    033/6 Usage: some special cases 209

    034 Adverb forms 214

    034/1 Derived adverbs 214

    034/2 Non-derived adverbs and other special groups. 215

    034/3 Comparison of adverbs 218

    Chapter 6 Prepositions 221

    035 Basic features 221

    036 Individual prepositions and their meanings 222

    036/1 Prepositions of place and direction 222

    036/2 Prepositions of time. 237

    036/3 Prepositions of mixed reference 243

    Chapter 7 Conjunctions 246

    037 Basic features 246

    038 Individual conjunctions and their meanings 247

    038/1 Conjunctions expressing cause (reason). 247

    038/2 Conjunctions expressing time relations 248

    038/3 Conjunctions expressing conditions 251

    038/4 Conjunctions expressing addition. 254

    038/5 Contrast and contradiction with subordinating conjunctions 258

    038/6 Mixed conjunctions. 259

    039 Conjunction clauses and sentence syntax 264

    039/1 Clauses as adverbials 265

    039/2 Clauses as subjects, objects and complements 266

    039/3 Adverbs as subordinators instead of conjunctions 267

    039/4 Further subordination. 268

    039/5 Clause reduction to indicate function 269

    039/6 Clauses as parts of phrases 269

    039/7 Comma rules. 272

    Chapter 8 Verbs: Basic Features, Syntax and Forms 273

    040 Basic features 273

    040/1 The verb phrase. 273

    040/2 Verb morphology 274

    041 Syntax: the verb in the sentence 285

    041/1 The verb and its complementation 285

    041/2 The verb and basic sentence operations 287

    041/3 Verbal action types (modes of occurrence) 298

    042 Forms of verbs 300

    042/1 Verb formation 300

    042/2 Particle verbs 301

    042/3 Formation of non-finite verbs. 307

    042/4 Forming progressive and perfect. 309

    042/5 Forming the passive 309

    Chapter 9 Verbs: The Present and Past Tenses 311

    043 Overview 311

    044 The primary non-perfect tenses and their aspects 312

    044/1 The general meaning of the aspects 312

    044/2 The present tense and its aspects 318

    044/3 The past tense: introduction 327

    044/4 The past tense: forms 327

    044/5 The past tense: main interplay of aspects 334

    044/6 The past tense: further points on aspect usage 336

    Chapter 10 Verbs: The Perfect Tenses 340

    045 Introduction 340

    046 The present perfect 341

    046/1 Time orientation and general meaning. 341

    046/2 Time orientation, adverbials, and tense 342

    046/3 Time-span perfects: the continuative 343

    046/4 Time-span perfects: the experiential 348

    046/5 Non-time-span perfects: the resultative 352

    046/6 The present perfect: concluding points and summary 360

    047 The past perfect 364

    047/1 Time orientation and general meaning. 364

    047/2 The past perfect as present-perfect-in-the-past. 364

    047/3 The past perfect as past-tense-in-the-past (= pre-past use) 366

    047/4 Some further points of note 368

    Chapter 11 Verbs: Future and Conditional Meaning,

    Indirect Speech, the Passive 371

    11.1 Future meaning 371

    048 Introduction 371

    049 The forms of future reference 372

    049/1 The modal future: will 372

    049/2 The modal future: to be going to 377

    049/3 The modal future: shall 379

    049/4 The non-modal future: arrangements. 380

    049/5 Past and perfect meanings with future reference 382

    049/6 The basics of future meaning – overview 385

    11.2 Conditional meaning 386

    050 Introduction 386

    051 Conditional meaning and conditional forms 387

    051/1 Concrete points on form 387

    051/2 Conditional sentences with speculative meaning 388

    051/3 Conditional sentences with non-speculative modal meaning 395

    051/4 False conditionals 398

    051/5 Speculative conditions: other types and variants 401

    11.3 Indirect (reported) speech 405

    052 Introduction: direct and indirect speech 405

    053 The forms of indirect speech 406

    053/1 Tense regulation in indirect speech. 407

    053/2 Other changes in indirect speech 410

    053/3 Reporting verbs in indirect speech 413

    053/4 Questions in indirect speech 416

    053/5 Commands in indirect speech. 420

    11.4 The passive voice 422

    054 Introduction: active and passive voice 422

    055 Forming and using the passive 423

    055/1 Basic features of active-passive conversion. 423

    055/2 Transitive verb types and their relation to the passive 425

    055/3 Further points on the passive 426

    Chapter 12 Verbs: Modal Verbs. 430

    056 Modal verbs: types and forms 430

    056/1 Primary modals 430

    056/2 Secondary modals 432

    057 Modal meanings 433

    057/1 Ability/capability 433

    057/2 Speculation 437

    057/3 Permission. 442

    057/4 Directives. 445

    057/5 Other modal usage 456

    Chapter 13 Verbs: Non-finite Verbs 459

    058 Basic features 459

    13.1 The infinitive 459

    059 Forms 459

    060 Infinitive constructions 460

    060/1 The infinitive after verbs 461

    060/2 The infinitive after verbs: some special cases 462

    060/3 The infinitive after adjectives 463

    060/4 Infinitive clauses as shortened relative clauses 467

    060/5 Infinitive clauses as appositive postmodifications 472

    060/6 Infinitives of purpose 472

    060/7 Infinitives in indirect questions and indirect commands 473

    060/8 Consecutive infinitives 475

    060/9 The perfect, progressive and passive forms of the infinitive 479

    060/10 Syntax: sentence functions in and around the infinitive 481

    13.2 The gerund 487

    061 Form, syntax, general meaning 487

    061/1 The subject of a gerund. 488

    061/2 The gerund clause as subject. 489

    061/3 Tense, aspect and passive with the gerund 489

    062 Gerund constructions 491

    062/1 The gerund after verbs 492

    062/2 Catenatives: gerund or infinitive according to meaning 494

    062/3 Catenatives: gerund or infinitive according to grammar 497

    062/4 Catenatives: gerund or infinitive with little or no difference 498

    062/5 The gerund after prepositions 499

    062/6 The gerund in noun compounds. 501

    062/7 The action nominal 501

    13.3 The participles 503

    063 Form, syntax, general meaning 503

    063/1 Uses and functions of participles: an introduction 504

    063/2 The syntax of the participle clause 505

    063/3 Tense, aspect and passive with participles. 506

    064 The participles in use 507

    064/1 The present participle at sentence level 507

    064/2 The present participle at phrase level 515

    064/3 The present participle: some borderline cases. 519

    064/4 The perfect participle. 522

    064/5 The past participle: introduction 524

    064/6 The past participle at sentence level 524

    064/7 The past participle at phrase level 529

    Chapter 14 Phrase and Clause at Complex Level 532

    14.1 The complex phrase 532

    065 Introduction 532

    066 Postmodification in the noun phrase 532

    066/1 The relative clause. 534

    066/2 The relative clause: other phenomena 540

    066/3 Other types of relative postmodification. 542

    066/4 Appositive postmodification 548

    066/5 Genitive postmodification 551

    066/6 Multiple postmodification 553

    067 Complex adjective and prepositional phrases 557

    067/1 The complex adjective phrase 557

    067/2 The complex prepositional phrase 561

    14.2 Aspects of the complex sentence 562

    068 Forms and functions 562

    068/1 Clauses as subject (S) 562

    068/2 Clauses as direct object (Od) 563

    068/3 Clauses as subject complement (Cs) 565

    068/4 Clauses as object complement (Co) 565

    068/5 Clauses as adverbials (A). 567

    068/6 Examples of sentence analysis 572

    068/7 Analysing special clause and sentence types. 574
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Produktdetails

Einband Taschenbuch
Seitenzahl 581
Erscheinungsdatum 21.07.2010
Sprache Englisch
ISBN 978-3-8252-8432-9
Verlag Utb GmbH
Maße (L/B/H) 24,1/17,2/4,1 cm
Gewicht 1128 g
Auflage 1. Auflage
Buch (Taschenbuch, Englisch)
Buch (Taschenbuch, Englisch)
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39,90
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