"The sciences as a whole are slowly but gradually drifting away from life and are only returning after adetour". Goethe Detours should be avoided. The picture we are presenting here of the current theory in phenolic resin chemistry and the technical application of phenolic resins is based on day-to-day experiences in research, pro4uction and marketing, however, with the background of economic relevance. This book, then, is not to be regarded as a systematic collection and evaluation of the literature, although the literature up to July, 1978 has generally been taken into consideration. The audience to which this book is directed is wide-ranging: chemists, engineers, marketing professionals and students. We show where the first fully synthetic polymers, phenolic resins, stand today and what their future iso Taking a look back over their development, one is only more deeply convinced that after a wide variety of adaptions, they still possess the tech nical and economic strengths which allow for their further market growth and with it, a full appreciation of their value. We would like to extend our gratitude to all friends and promotors, in particular to those who helped and encouraged us with advice and assistance. Andre Knop Walter Scheib Frankfurt, January 1979 Table of Contents Historical and Economic Development of Phenolic Resins 1. History . . . 1 1.1. 1.2. Market Position 5 References. . 8 Raw Materials . 10 2. 10 2.1. Phenols. . . 10 2.1.l. Physical Properties of Phenol .