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Crystallization

Basic Concepts and Industrial Applications

Wolfgang Beckmann

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Beschreibung

Crystallization is a natural occurring process but also a process abundantly used in the industry. Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). Crystals distinguish themself from liquids, gases and amorphous substances by the long-range order of its building blocks that entail the crystals to be formed of well-defined faces, and give rise to a large number of properties of the solid.

Crystallization is used at some stage in nearly all process industries as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. Crystallization is practiced on all scales: from the isolation of the first milligrams of a newly synthesized substance in the research laboratory to isolating products on the mulit-million tonne scale in industry. The book describes the breadth of crystallization operations, from isolation from a reaction broth to purification and finally to tailoring product properties.

In the first section of the book, the basic mechanisms - nucleation, growth, attrition and agglomeration are introduced. It ensures an understanding of supersaturation, the driving force of crystallization. Furthermore, the solubility of the substance and its dependences on process conditions and the various techniques of crystallization and their possibilities and limitations are discussed. Last but not least, the first part includes an intensive treatment of polymorphism . The second part builds on the basics, exploring how crystallization processes can be developed, either batch-wise or continuous, from solution or from the melt. A discussion of the purification during crystallization serves as a link between the two sections, where practical aspects and an insight using theoretical concepts are combined. Mixing and its influence on the
crystallization as well as the mutual interference of down-stream processes with the crystallization are also treated. Finally, techniques to characterize the crop are discussed.

The third part of the book is dedicated to accounts of actual developments and of carried-out crystallizations. Typical pitfalls and strategies to avoid these as well as the design of robust processes are presented.

Wolfgang Beckmann is Senior Scientist at Bayer Technologies. Dr. Beckmann studied Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry in Germany and the US. He spent one year as Postdoctoral Fellow in Marseille.
Wolfgang Beckmann has spent the last 20 years working at Bayer and prior to this at Schering, developing crystallization processes for pharmaceutical compounds. He has authored 3 chapters in books and approximately 50 publications in reviewed journals.

Produktdetails

Einband gebundene Ausgabe
Herausgeber Wolfgang Beckmann
Seitenzahl 354
Erscheinungsdatum 20.02.2013
Sprache Englisch
ISBN 978-3-527-32762-1
Verlag Wiley-VCH
Maße (L/B/H) 24,9/16,9/2,5 cm
Gewicht 914 g
Abbildungen 258 schwarz-weiße und 20 farbige Abbildungen, 18 schwarz-weiße Tabellen
Auflage 1. Auflage

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  • CRYSTALLIZATION: INTRODUCTION

    MECHANISMS OF CRYSTALLIZATION
    Crystal Lattice
    Nucleation of Crystals
    Growth and Growth Rate of Crystals

    SOLUBILITY AND SOLUTION EQUILIBRIA IN CRYSTALLIZATION
    Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams: General Issues
    Melt Phase Diagrams
    Solution Equilibria

    AGGLOMERATION DURING CRYSTALLIZATION
    Mechanisms and Kinetics of Agglomeration
    Parameters Influencing Agglomeration
    Agglomeration during Crystallization
    Mechanical Properties of Agglomerates

    POLYMORPHISM OF CRYSTALLINE SYSTEMS
    Introduction and Definitions
    Occurrence and Properties of Polymorphs and Solvates
    Thermodynamics of Polymorphs of Solid-State Forms
    Thermodynamics of Hydrates
    Experimental Techniques to Elucidate Thermodynamics
    Formation of Various Polymorphs and Solid-State Forms-Polymorph Screens
    Selection of Optimal Form for Development

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES AND IMPURITIES ON CRYSTALLIZATION
    Influence of Additives and Impurities on Crystallization
    Influence of Impurities: Modeling
    Tailor-Made Additives
    Modeling the Influence of Solvents

    PURIFICATION BY CRYSTALLIZATION
    Introduction
    Mechanisms of Impurity Incorporation and Purification

    CHARACTERIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE PRODUCTS
    Introduction
    Characterization of Intrinsic Properties of a Solid
    Characterization of Particle Shape and Size
    Powder Flow Properties
    In-Process Characterization

    BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTION
    Generation of Supersaturation in a Crystallizer
    Mass and Population Balance for Growth from Suspension
    Operation of a Continuous Crystallizer: Basics
    Operation of a Batch Crystallizer: Basics

    DEVELOPMENT OF BATCH CRYSTALLIZATIONS
    Setting Goals
    Crystallization of Organic Moieties
    Generation of Supersaturation in Batch Crystallizations
    Initiation of Crystallization - Nucleation Phase
    Seeded Batch Crystallizations
    Crystallization Period
    Scale-Up Considerations
    Manipulating Particle Shape

    CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZATION
    Concept and Design of Continuous Crystallizers
    Various Continuous Crystallizers
    Periphery
    Special Features of the Process
    Adjustment of Suspension Densities

    PRECIPITATION
    Precipitation from Solution by Mixing Two Streams
    Semi-Batch Precipitations
    Model of Mixing during Precipitation
    Precipitations Using Supercritical Fluids
    Crystal Issues
    Particle Size as a Function of Operating Conditions

    MIXING IN CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES
    Mixing in Batch and Continuous Crystallization Processes
    Basic Mixing Tasks - Mixing Tasks in Crystallization
    Impellers and Agitation Systems
    Power Consumption of an Impeller System [2]
    Blending
    Suspending
    Scale-Up of a Crystallization Process

    DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES
    Transfer of Suspension and Filter Cake
    Solid?Liquid Separation
    Drying

    MELT CRYSTALLIZATION
    Characteristics of Melt Crystallization
    Processes of Melt Crystallization
    Postcrystallization Treatments
    Laboratory Techniques

    EXAMPLES OF REALIZED CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES
    Choosing the Drain Point in Process Design
    Example Crop Crystallization for Organic Compounds
    Example Crystallization of Table Salt
    Results

    DESIGN EXAMPLES OF MELT CRYSTALLIZATION
    Concepts of Melt Crystallization
    Outlook

    INDEX