Landscapes of the Anthropocene with Google Earth

Inhaltsverzeichnis


1
Introduction

1.1  Google Earth and Landscapes- Introduction

1.2  The Anthropocene


1.3 The Palaeoanthropocene


1.4 The Great Acceleration


References


2 Driving Forces


            
2.1 Introduction

2.2 Demographic Developments


2.3 Farming


2.4 Fires


2.5 Deforestation


2.6 Urbanisation


2.7 Mining


2.8 Energy Sources and the Landscape


2.9 Tourism


2.10 Climate Change


References


3 Humanly-Made landforms


3.1 Introduction


3.2 Tells and Other Mounds


3.3 Tumuli


3.4 Causewayed Enclosures


3.5 Hillforts


3.6 Defensive Walls


3.7 Moated Settlements


3.8 Qanat


3.9 Terraces and Lynchets

3.10 Mine Spoil Heaps

3.11 Craters


3.12 Ponds


3.13 Conclusion: Earth Moving


References


4 Rivers


            
4.1 Introduction


4.2 Dams and Barriers


4.3 Inter-Basin Water Transfers


4.4 Channelization and Straightening

4.5 Levees and Dykes


4.6 Flood Relief Channels or Bypasses


             4.7 Canals


4.8 Changes in River Channels as a Result of Land Use Changes


4.8.1 Introduction


4.8.2 Diversity of Causes: some Examples


4.8.3 Role of Soil Conservation Measures

                         4.8.4 Role of Invasive Plants and of Animals


4.8.5 The Role of Mining


4.8.6 Water Mills


4.8.7. Effects of Urbanisation                                             


4.8.8 Effects of Transport Corridors


4.9 Holocene and Anthropocene Floodplain Sedimentation


4.10 Recent Changes in Sediment Loads


4.11 Fluvial Wetland Drainage


4.12 River Deltas


4.13 Flooding and Runoff Changes


4.13.1 Groundwater Depletion


4.13.2 Forest Removal


4.13.3 Afforestation

4.13.4 Riparian Vegetation and the Spread of Invasive Plants


4.13.5 Swamp Encroachment


4.13.6 Land Drainage


4.13.7 Urbanisation


4.13.8 Permafrost Melting


4.13.9 Recent Climate Changes


4.14 Conclusion


References


5 The Cryosphere (Glacial and periglacial landscapes)


            
5.1

Introduction


             5.2

Snowpack Disappearance


5.3 Permafrost Disruption and Thermokarst

             5.4 Valley Glaciers and Small Ice Caps

5.5 Glacial Lakes


5.6 Polar Ice Sheets and Ice Caps


5.7 Conclusion

References


6 Coasts


6.1 Introduction: Coastal Modification


6.2 Deliberately Created Landforms

6.2.1 Coastal Defence Structures, Groynes, Tsunami Walls, etc.


6.2.2 Artificial Islands


6.2.3 Artificial Reefs


6.2.4 Salt Pans

6.2.5 Coastal Reclamation


6.3 Non-Deliberate Changes


6.3.1 Accelerated Coastal Erosion


6.3.2 Changing Salt Marshes


6.3.3 Mangroves


6.3.4 Coral Reefs


6.3.5 Estuaries


6.4 The Future

6.4.1 The Amount of Sea-Level Rise by 2100


6.4.2 Land Subsidence


6.4.3 Reefs


6.4.4 Salt Marshes


6.4.5 Mangroves and Forested Wetlands


6.4.6 Sabkhas


6.4.7 Cliffed Coasts


6.4.8 Sandy Beaches


             6.5 Conclusion


References


7 Lakes


7.1 Introduction


7.2 Lake Contraction due to Reclamation and Sedimentation


7.3 Lake Desiccation


                          7.3.1 Aral Sea, Central Asia


7.3.2 The Caspian Sea


7.3.3 The Dead Sea

7.3.4 Lakes Urmia and Bakhtegan, Iran


7.3.5 Lop Nor, China


7.3.6 East African Lakes

7.3.7 Salton Sea, USA


                          7.3.8 Owens Lake


                          7.3.9 The Great Salt Lake


                  7.4 Conclusions


 


References


 


8 Ground Subsidence


8.1 Introduction


8.2 Subsidence Due to Changing Groundwater Conditions


8.3 Solutional Collapse of Salt and Gypsum


8.4 General Subsidence Due to Groundwater Exploitation


8.5 Coal Mining

8.6 Salt Mining by Solution

8.7 Hydrocarbon Abstraction 8.8 Geothermal Fluid Abstraction

8.9 Induced Seismic Activity


8.10 Shrinkage of Organic Soils and Peats

8.11 Hydrocompaction of Collapsing Soils

8.12 Ground Fissures (Earth Fissures)

8.13 Conclusions


References


9 Water Erosion and Mass Movements


9.1 Introduction: Soil Erosion by Water


9.2 Long-Term Rates of Erosion


9.3 Forest Removal and Other Land Use Changes


9.3.1 Introduction


9.3.2 Mid-Latitude Humid Regions


9.3.3 The Tropics


9.3.4 Mediterranean Land Uses


9.4 Mechanisms of Soil Loss


9.4.1 Soil Loss during Harvesting

9.4.2 Erosion by Land Levelling


9.4.3 Tillage Erosion


9.4.4 Grazing

9.4.5 Grassland Replacement by Shrublands


9.4.6 Irrigation Induced Erosion


9.4.7 Fire Induced Erosion

9.4.8 Urbanization, Construction and Roads


9.5 Peat Erosion


9.6 Arroyos, Lavakas, Dongas, and Calanchi


9.7 Soil Conservation and Erosion Management

            9.8 Slopes: Accelerated Mass Movements


 


9.8.1 Introduction


9.8.2 Deforestation


9.8.3 Roads


9.8.4 Mining


9.8.5 Irrigation


9.8.6 Dam Construction: the Case of Vaiont

9.8.7 Slopes, Glacier Retreat and Permafrost


References


10 Aeolian Anthropocene


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Dust Storms and Wind Erosion


10.2.1 Introduction


10.2.2 Desiccation

10.2.3 History of Dust Storms


                          10.2.4 Dust Storms since the Mid-Twentieth Century

10.2.5 Humans or Climate?


 


10.3 Sand dunes

 


10.3.1 Introduction


10.3.2 Examples of Dune Modification

10.5 Conclusions


References


11 Stage 3 of the Anthropocene – Stewardship


            
11.1 Introduction


             11.2 Conclusions


References


Index

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Einband

Gebundene Ausgabe

Erscheinungsdatum

07.12.2023

Verlag

Springer

Seitenzahl

249

Maße (L/B/H)

28,5/21,5/1,9 cm

Beschreibung

Details

Einband

Gebundene Ausgabe

Erscheinungsdatum

07.12.2023

Verlag

Springer

Seitenzahl

249

Maße (L/B/H)

28,5/21,5/1,9 cm

Gewicht

983 g

Auflage

1st ed. 2023

Sprache

Englisch

ISBN

978-3-031-45384-7

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  • Landscapes of the Anthropocene with Google Earth

  • 1
    Introduction

    1.1  Google Earth and Landscapes- Introduction

    1.2  The Anthropocene


    1.3 The Palaeoanthropocene


    1.4 The Great Acceleration


    References


    2 Driving Forces


                
    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Demographic Developments


    2.3 Farming


    2.4 Fires


    2.5 Deforestation


    2.6 Urbanisation


    2.7 Mining


    2.8 Energy Sources and the Landscape


    2.9 Tourism


    2.10 Climate Change


    References


    3 Humanly-Made landforms


    3.1 Introduction


    3.2 Tells and Other Mounds


    3.3 Tumuli


    3.4 Causewayed Enclosures


    3.5 Hillforts


    3.6 Defensive Walls


    3.7 Moated Settlements


    3.8 Qanat


    3.9 Terraces and Lynchets

    3.10 Mine Spoil Heaps

    3.11 Craters


    3.12 Ponds


    3.13 Conclusion: Earth Moving


    References


    4 Rivers


                
    4.1 Introduction


    4.2 Dams and Barriers


    4.3 Inter-Basin Water Transfers


    4.4 Channelization and Straightening

    4.5 Levees and Dykes


    4.6 Flood Relief Channels or Bypasses


                 4.7 Canals


    4.8 Changes in River Channels as a Result of Land Use Changes


    4.8.1 Introduction


    4.8.2 Diversity of Causes: some Examples


    4.8.3 Role of Soil Conservation Measures

                             4.8.4 Role of Invasive Plants and of Animals


    4.8.5 The Role of Mining


    4.8.6 Water Mills


    4.8.7. Effects of Urbanisation                                             


    4.8.8 Effects of Transport Corridors


    4.9 Holocene and Anthropocene Floodplain Sedimentation


    4.10 Recent Changes in Sediment Loads


    4.11 Fluvial Wetland Drainage


    4.12 River Deltas


    4.13 Flooding and Runoff Changes


    4.13.1 Groundwater Depletion


    4.13.2 Forest Removal


    4.13.3 Afforestation

    4.13.4 Riparian Vegetation and the Spread of Invasive Plants


    4.13.5 Swamp Encroachment


    4.13.6 Land Drainage


    4.13.7 Urbanisation


    4.13.8 Permafrost Melting


    4.13.9 Recent Climate Changes


    4.14 Conclusion


    References


    5 The Cryosphere (Glacial and periglacial landscapes)


                
    5.1

    Introduction


                 5.2

    Snowpack Disappearance


    5.3 Permafrost Disruption and Thermokarst

                 5.4 Valley Glaciers and Small Ice Caps

    5.5 Glacial Lakes


    5.6 Polar Ice Sheets and Ice Caps


    5.7 Conclusion

    References


    6 Coasts


    6.1 Introduction: Coastal Modification


    6.2 Deliberately Created Landforms

    6.2.1 Coastal Defence Structures, Groynes, Tsunami Walls, etc.


    6.2.2 Artificial Islands


    6.2.3 Artificial Reefs


    6.2.4 Salt Pans

    6.2.5 Coastal Reclamation


    6.3 Non-Deliberate Changes


    6.3.1 Accelerated Coastal Erosion


    6.3.2 Changing Salt Marshes


    6.3.3 Mangroves


    6.3.4 Coral Reefs


    6.3.5 Estuaries


    6.4 The Future

    6.4.1 The Amount of Sea-Level Rise by 2100


    6.4.2 Land Subsidence


    6.4.3 Reefs


    6.4.4 Salt Marshes


    6.4.5 Mangroves and Forested Wetlands


    6.4.6 Sabkhas


    6.4.7 Cliffed Coasts


    6.4.8 Sandy Beaches


                 6.5 Conclusion


    References


    7 Lakes


    7.1 Introduction


    7.2 Lake Contraction due to Reclamation and Sedimentation


    7.3 Lake Desiccation


                              7.3.1 Aral Sea, Central Asia


    7.3.2 The Caspian Sea


    7.3.3 The Dead Sea

    7.3.4 Lakes Urmia and Bakhtegan, Iran


    7.3.5 Lop Nor, China


    7.3.6 East African Lakes

    7.3.7 Salton Sea, USA


                              7.3.8 Owens Lake


                              7.3.9 The Great Salt Lake


                      7.4 Conclusions


     


    References


     


    8 Ground Subsidence


    8.1 Introduction


    8.2 Subsidence Due to Changing Groundwater Conditions


    8.3 Solutional Collapse of Salt and Gypsum


    8.4 General Subsidence Due to Groundwater Exploitation


    8.5 Coal Mining

    8.6 Salt Mining by Solution

    8.7 Hydrocarbon Abstraction 8.8 Geothermal Fluid Abstraction

    8.9 Induced Seismic Activity


    8.10 Shrinkage of Organic Soils and Peats

    8.11 Hydrocompaction of Collapsing Soils

    8.12 Ground Fissures (Earth Fissures)

    8.13 Conclusions


    References


    9 Water Erosion and Mass Movements


    9.1 Introduction: Soil Erosion by Water


    9.2 Long-Term Rates of Erosion


    9.3 Forest Removal and Other Land Use Changes


    9.3.1 Introduction


    9.3.2 Mid-Latitude Humid Regions


    9.3.3 The Tropics


    9.3.4 Mediterranean Land Uses


    9.4 Mechanisms of Soil Loss


    9.4.1 Soil Loss during Harvesting

    9.4.2 Erosion by Land Levelling


    9.4.3 Tillage Erosion


    9.4.4 Grazing

    9.4.5 Grassland Replacement by Shrublands


    9.4.6 Irrigation Induced Erosion


    9.4.7 Fire Induced Erosion

    9.4.8 Urbanization, Construction and Roads


    9.5 Peat Erosion


    9.6 Arroyos, Lavakas, Dongas, and Calanchi


    9.7 Soil Conservation and Erosion Management

                9.8 Slopes: Accelerated Mass Movements


     


    9.8.1 Introduction


    9.8.2 Deforestation


    9.8.3 Roads


    9.8.4 Mining


    9.8.5 Irrigation


    9.8.6 Dam Construction: the Case of Vaiont

    9.8.7 Slopes, Glacier Retreat and Permafrost


    References


    10 Aeolian Anthropocene


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Dust Storms and Wind Erosion


    10.2.1 Introduction


    10.2.2 Desiccation

    10.2.3 History of Dust Storms


                              10.2.4 Dust Storms since the Mid-Twentieth Century

    10.2.5 Humans or Climate?


     


    10.3 Sand dunes

     


    10.3.1 Introduction


    10.3.2 Examples of Dune Modification

    10.5 Conclusions


    References


    11 Stage 3 of the Anthropocene – Stewardship


                
    11.1 Introduction


                 11.2 Conclusions


    References


    Index